(Dogs and Cats)
NADA No.: 139-236
Click here for MSDS
TRANQUIVED is supplied as a sterile solution. Each mL contains:
Xylazine hydrochloride equivalent to base activity 20 mg
Methylparaben 0.9 mg
Propylparaben 0.1 mg
Water for injection. pH adjusted with citric acid and sodium citrate.
Xylazine should be used in dogs and dogs when it is
desirable to produce a state of sedation accompanied by a shorter
period of analgesia. Xylazine has been used successfully as follows:
1. Diagnostic procedures - examination of mouth and ears, abdominal
palpation, rectal palpation, vaginal examination, catheterization of
the bladder and radiographic examinations of head and extremities.
2. Orthopedic procedures, such as application of casting materials and splints.
3. Dental procedures.
4. Minor surgical procedures of short duration such as debridement,
removal of cutaneous neoplasms and suturing of lacerations.
5. To calm and facilitate restraint of fractious animals.
6. Major surgical procedures:
a. When used as a preanesthetic to general anesthesia.
b. When used in conjunction with local anesthetics.
Xylazine, a non narcotic compound, is a sedative and
analgesic as well as a muscle relaxant. Its sedative and analgesic
activity is related to central nervous system depression. Its muscle
relaxant effect is based on inhibition of the intraneural transmission
of impulses in the central nervous system. The principal
pharmacological activities develop within 10 to 15 minutes after
intramuscular or subcutaneous injection, and within 3 to 5 minutes
following intravenous administration. A sleeplike state, the depth of
which is dose-dependent, is usually maintained for 1 to 2 hours, while
analgesia lasts from 15 to 30 minutes. The centrally-acting muscle
relaxant effect causes relaxation of the skeletal musculature
complementing sedation and analgesia. In animals under the influence of
xylazine, the respiratory rate is reduced as in natural sleep.
Following treatment with xylazine, the heart rate is decreased and a
transient change in the conductivity of the cardiac muscle may occur as
evidenced by a partial atrioventricular block. This resembles the
atrioventricular block often observed in apparently normal animals.
Intravenous administration of xylazine causes a transient rise in blood
pressure, followed by a slight decrease. Xylazine has no effect on
blood clotting time or other hematological parameters.
Dosage and Administration:
1. Dosage: Intravenous — 0.5 mL/20 lb body weight (0.5 mg/lb or 1.1 mg/kg).
Intramuscular or subcutaneous — 1.0 mL/20 lb body weight (1.0 mg/lb or 2.2 mg/kg).
In large dogs (over 50 lbs), a dosage of 0.5 mg/lb administered
intramuscularly may provide sufficient sedation and/or analgesia for
most procedures. Since vomiting may occur (see Side Effects), fasting
for 6-24 hours prior to the use of xylazine may reduce the incidence;
the I.V. route results in the least vomiting. Following the injection
of xylazine, the animal should be allowed to rest quietly until the
full effect has been reached. These dosages produce sedation which is
usually maintained for one (1) to two (2) hours, and analgesia which
lasts for 15 to 30 minutes.
2. Preanesthetic to Local Anesthesia: Xylazine at the recommended
dosages can be used in conjunction with local anesthetics, such as
procaine or lidocaine.
3. Preanesthetic to General Anesthesia: Xylazine at the recommended
dosage rates produces an additive effect to central nervous system
depressants such as pentobarbital sodium, thiopental sodium and
thiamylal sodium. Therefore, the dosage of such compounds should be
reduced and administered to the desired effect. In general, 1 §3 to 1
§2 of the calculated dosage of the barbiturates will be needed to
produce a surgical plane of anesthesia. Postanesthetic or emergence
excitement has not been observed in animals preanesthetized with
xylazine. Xylazine has been used successfully as a preanesthetic agent
for pentobarbital sodium, thiopental sodium, thiamylal sodium, nitrous
oxide, ether, halothane and methoxyflurane anesthesia.
Protect from heat. Do not store over 30°C (86°F).
Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of
a licensed veterinarian. Clinical results with xylazine have not
revealed any detrimental effects when compound is administered to
pregnant dogs. However, until more definitive studies are completed,
xylazine is not recommended for use in these animals. Careful
consideration should be given before administering to dogs or cats with
significantly depressed respiration, severe pathologic heart disease,
advanced liver or kidney disease, severe endotoxic or traumatic shock
and stress conditions such as extreme heat, cold or fatigue. Analgesic
effect is variable, and depth should be carefully assayed prior to
surgical/clinical procedures. In spite of sedation, the practitioner
and handlers should proceed with caution since defense reactions may
not be diminished. Do not use xylazine in conjunction with
tranquilizers. Since an additive effect results from the use of
xylazine and the barbiturate compounds, it should be used with caution
with these central nervous system depressants. Products known to
produce respiratory depression or apnea, such as thiamylal sodium,
should be given at a reduced dosage and, when injected intravenously,
should be administered slowly. When intravenous administration is
desired, avoid perivascular injection in order to achieve the desired
effect. Studies have shown negligible evidence of tissue irritation,
however, following perivascular injection of xylazine. Bradycardia and
an arrhythmia in the form of incomplete atrioventricular block have
been reported following xylazine administration. Although clinically
the importance of this effect is questioned, a standard dose of
atropine given prior to or following xylazine injection will greatly
decrease the incidence. While sedation usually lasts from 1 to 2 hours,
recovery periods in excess of 4 to 5 hours have been reported in dogs
This drug is for use in dogs and cats only.
Xylazine has been tested in dogs at 4 times the recommended
dose. Doses of this magnitude produced muscle tremors, emesis and long
periods of sedation.
Emesis occurs occasionally in dogs, and frequently in
cats, soon after the administration of xylazine, but before clinical
sedation is evident. When observed, emesis usually occurs only a single
time, after which there is no further emetic effect. The use of
antiemetics may delay this phenomenon. The occurrence of emesis may be
considered a desirable effect when xylazine is administered as a
preanesthetic to general anesthesia. Xylazine used at recommended
dosage levels may occasionally cause slight muscle tremors, bradycardia
with partial A-V heart block and a reduced respiratory rate. Should
excessive respiratory depression occur following the use of TRANQUIVED
(xylazine), administer yohimbine to rapidly reverse the
xylazine-induced effects. Gaseous extension of the stomach may occur in
dogs treated with xylazine making radiographic interpretation more
difficult. Movement in response to sharp auditory stimuli may be
observed. Increased urination may occur in cats following the use of
20 mL multiple-dose vials.
VEDCO - 11/10/98.1